Tag Archives: muslim

Muhammad al-Idrisi, Muslim geographer and botanist, the 16th generation direct descendant of the Prophet Muhammad ?

Abu Abd Allah Muhammad al-Idrisi al-Qurtubi al-Hasani al-Sabti, Muslim geographer, cartographer and botanist, he was born in 1099 in modern-day Cuepta (Ceuta), Spain.

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Al-Idrisi procured a ball (globe) of silver weighing approximately 400 kilograms and meticulously recorded on it the seven continents with trade routes, lakes and rivers, major cities, and plains and mountains.

Regarding botany, he delved into the science of medicinal plants and wrote several books, the most popular entitled “Kitab al-Jami-li-Sifat Ashtat al-Nabatat” (The Simple Text on Medicinal Plants).

In his writings, he associated drugs available to him from Muslim scientists with those from his own research and travels, describing the names of these drugs in several languages including Berber, Persian, Hindi, Greek, Syriac, and Latin.

Muhammad al-Idrisi, Genealogy

01. Abu Abdullah Muhammad (Muhammad al-Idrisi) ibn
02. Muhammad ibn
03. Abdullah ibn
04. Idris ibn
05. Ali ibn
06. Hammud ibn
07. Maymun ibn
08. Ahmed ibn
09. Ali ibn
10. ‘Obeydullah ibn
11. ‘Omar ibn
12. Idris ibn
13. Abdullah ibn
14. Hasan al-Mu’thannā ibn
15. Sayyidina Hassan ibn
16. Sayyidatuna Fatima az-Zahra’ bint
17. Sayyidina Muhammad (The Prophet)

Reference :
1. imgrum.net
2. pinterest.com
3. Hasan ibn Ali (wikipedia)
4. Al Idrisi (unhas.ac.id)
5. Muhammad al Idrisi (wikipedia)
6. The History of the Mohammedan Dynasties in Spain

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Legenda Patih Gajah Mada, wafat di Kota Suci Makkah?

Di saat mengikuti acara dauroh di PP al madani Lombok timur (Pebruari 2015), Ustadz Emdeka Saka Guru berkesempatan mengunjungi makam Raja Islam Sela Parang.

Sang Raja merupakan seorang pendakwah Islam pada periode awal, sekitar abad XIV M di Pulau lombok.

Yang tidak terduga di komplek makam itu, terdapat petilasan.

Petilasan Keberangkatan Patih Gajah Mada ketika pergi haji ke Makkah

Sumber Picture

Petilasan ini, menurut tutur kata dari generasi ke generasi setempat, di yakini sebagai lokasi keberangkatan Sang Maha Patih Gajah Mada ketika hendak pergi haji menuju Makkah.

Penduduk wilayah ini percaya, Patih Gajah Mada setelah masuk Islam dan lengser keprabon berganti nama menjadi Muhammad Rum.

Dan menurut Babad Sela Parang, Gajah Mada tidak pernah kembali, karena beliau wafat di kota suci Makkah.

WaLlahu a’lamu bishshawab

Catatan Penambahan :

1. Kedatangan Gajah Mada ke Lombok, tercatat pada prasasti Bencangah Punan (tahun 1357 M) yang ditulis dalam aksara Jejawan (Sumber : opiniartikel.kampung-media.com)

2. Makam Selaparang berada di Lombok Timur, Nusa Tenggara Barat, tepatnya di kecamatan Swela sekitar 65 km dari kota Mataram (Sumber : lombok.panduanwisata.id)

3. Di puncak bukit Gunung Ratu, Kecamatan Ngimbang (Lamongan), terdapat makam yang diyakini masyarakat sekitar sebagai pusara ibunda Gajah Mada, dan bergaya makam selayaknya seorang muslimah (sumber : merdeka.com).

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Artikel Menarik :
1. Misteri Pemeluk Islam Pertama di Nusantara
2. Misteri Koin Majapahit, berukiran Kalimat Tauhid “Syahadat”?
3. Misteri 9 Sahabat Rasulullah, yang berdakwah di NUSANTARA?
4. Misteri Pasukan “Lebah Emas”, dalam kemelut kekuasaan Kerajaan Majapahit ?

8 Contributions of Imam Ja’far al-Sadiq in Science, a thousand years before European Scientists found its ?

Ja’far al-Sadiq was born in Medina on 24 April 702 AD (17 Rabi’ al-Awwal, 83 AH), to Muhammad al-Baqir (son of Zayn al-‘Ābdīn, son ofHusayn son of Ali ra.) and Umm Farwah (daughter of Al-Qasim son of Muhammad son of Abu Bakr ra.)

As a child, Ja’far Al-Sadiq studied under his grandfather, Zayn al-Abidin. After his grandfather’s death, he studied under and accompanied his father, Muhammad al-Baqir, until Muhammad al-Baqir died in 733.

Ja’far Al-Sadiq became well versed in Islamic sciences, including Qur’an and Hadith. In addition to his knowledge of Islamic sciences, Ja’far Al-Sadiq was also an adept in natural sciences, mathematics, philosophy, astronomy, anatomy, alchemy and other subjects.

Scholars believed to have learned extensively from Imam Ja’far al-Sadiq:

    1. Jābir ibn Hayyān – known in Europe as Geber, a great alchemist.
    2. Musa al-Kadhim – his son
    3. Ali al-Uraidhi ibn Ja’far al-Sadiq- his son.
    4. Abū Ḥanīfa – founder of Sunnî Ḥanafî school of thought.
    5. Malik ibn Anas – founder of the Sunnî Maliki school of thought.
      (source : wikipedia)

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Contribution of Imam Ja’far al-Sadiq in Science :

(1). Rotation of the Earth round the Sun

At the age of 11, the Imam refuted the theory that the sun, moon and the planets rotated around the earth. He said that the sun, during its course round the earth, passes through the 12 constellations in one year and remains in each constellation for 30 days, so why does it then disappear from sight during the night. It should remain visible in each constellation for 30 days. Ptolemy theory said that the sun has two movements. One of its movements is that it crosses the sign of the zodiac and goes round the earth in one year and the other movement is that it goes round the earth in one night and one day, as a result of which we see it rise in the east and set in the west.

Aristotle was a great thinker and philosopher. His books, Arganan and Physics, are the most precious literary treasures of mankind, but his theory that the earth is stationary and the sun and stars rotate around it, delayed the progress of the science of Astronomy and kept mankind in the darkness of ignorance for 1800 years.

The Imam remarked that those two movements were not compatible. When the sun had to pass through the sign of the zodiac in one year and stay in each constellation for 30 days how could it change its course and go round the earth in 24 hours?

He also announced that the earth rotated around its own axis. The great scholar Poincare who lived in the 20th century made fun of this theory. When such a scholar could refuse to believe this, how could people in the 1st and 2nd century of the Hijra believe in the theory of the Imam. The rotation of the earth on its own axis could be proved by observation only. When astronauts landed on the surface of the moon, and directed their telescope towards the earth they observed that it was rotating slowly on its axis.

Some people might say that it was only by guesswork that Imam Ja’far as-Sadiq said that the earth rotates on its own axis. Sometimes it happens that guesswork proves to be correct. But the question arises as to why no one else had guessed that for such a long time. This proves that he knew the laws of astro-physics which enabled him to make that discovery. If he had not known those laws, it would have been impossible for him to discover the rotation of the earth on its axis. This discovery could not have been accidental. One must know the cause to know its effect.

Tragically, for reasons stated above, the real credit of discovery of the movement of the earth round the sun was given to Copernicus who was an astronomer and mathematician, in the 15th Century. The theory of the earth rotation around its own axis went to Galileo who discovered the telescope.

(2). Theory of the Four Elements

At the age of 12 he rejected the theory of Four Elements of Aristotle and proved that it is wrong. He remarked: “I wonder how a man like Aristotle could say that in the world there are only four elements – Earth, Water, Fire, and Air. The Earth is not an element. It contains many elements. Each metal, which is in the earth, is an element.

For 1,000 years this theory was never refuted, and remained the corner stone of physics. Imam Ja’far as-Sadiq proved that Water, Air, and Fire were also not elements, but a mixture of elements. This he said 1,100 years before the European scientists discovered that air was not an element and had separated its constituents. To derive the fact that Air is not an element, but a mixture of elements, was impossible to conclude in the Imam’s age and time. He said that there are many elements in the air and that all of them are essential for breathing.

It was only in the 18th century, which was considered the golden age of science, after Lavoisier separated oxygen from the air and demonstrated the important role it plays in breathing and combustion that they accepted that it is not an element. However, even then they were of the opinion that other elements do not play a part in breathing. In the middle of the 19th century scientists changed their views about the part played by other elements in breathing.

By that time it was also proved that although oxygen purifies blood, it also burns combustible materials, which come in contact with it. If living beings breath pure oxygen for a long time, their breathing organs would be oxidised. Oxygen does not damage them because it is mixed with other gases. Therefore, they concluded that the presence of other gases which are in very minute quantities in the air is also essential for breathing.

Moreover, oxygen being the heaviest of all other gases in the air would have settled at the bottom and covered the surface of the earth up to a certain depth. As a result, breathing organs of all animals would have been burnt and animal life would have become extinct. Moreover it would have cut off the supply of carbon dioxide, which plants need so badly, and made it impossible for them to grow on the surface of the earth. Presence of other gases in the air does not let oxygen settle down to the bottom and destroy animal and plant life.

At last, after more than 1000 years, the theory of Ja’far as-Sadiq that presence of all gases in the air is essential for breathing was proved to be correct. He was the first person to discover that oxygen produces acidity. Time did not allow him to make known to the world further such revelations, but he was indeed proved the pioneer and leader in the scientific study of oxygen.

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(3). Origin of the Universe

The Imam’s another wonderful theory is about the ‘Origin of the Universe’. When modern scientists read this theory they confirm that it totally agrees with the modern theory, which has not yet become a law of physics. However, it has the unique distinction that it was enunciated 12 centuries ago. The theory read as follows :

“ The universe was born out of a tiny particle, which had two opposite poles. That particle produced an atom. In this way matter came into being. Then the matter diversified. This diversification was caused by the density or rarity of the atoms.”

The most significant point in this theory is the description of two opposite poles. The importance of this point was realised when the presence of two opposite poles was proved by modern science. Today it is an undisputed fact in atomic science and electronics.

Another of his interesting theory was that the universe is not always in one and the same condition. In one periods it expands and in another it contracts.

This phenomenon was considered for centuries as inconceivable and the theory remained quite incomprehensible to the leading astronomers. After the 18th century more and more powerful telescopes were built and astronomers could see beyond our solar system. It was in 1960 that it was observed and confirmed by astronomers that distances between our galaxy and the neighbouring galaxies are increasing. These observations have provided sufficient proof that the universe is in a state of expansion. We do not know when this expansion started. The discovery of black holes has proved his other statement that the universe sometimes contracts was also proved true. Hence the Imam’s theory was proved to be correct.

The Imam also stated that everything in the universe including inanimate objects, is always in motion although we may not see it. There is nothing without motion.

This theory, which was unacceptable in his time, is a scientific fact today. It is impossible to imagine, explain and describe an object in the universe, which is without motion. Motion is the essence of being. If there is no motion these is no existence. It is perpetual motion which creators life. In other words perpetual motion itself is life. If the motion stops, life would cease to exist. It is by the Will of Allah that eternal motion never stops and the life cycle continues. This eternal movement will continue till the Dooms-Day.

Jaber, his pupil once asked the Imam “How does the movement of the stars keep them from falling?”

The Imam replied : “Put a stone in a sling and swing it round your head. The stone will stay in the sling so long as you are rotating it. But as soon as you stop the rotation, the stone will fall down on the ground. In the same way the perpetual motion of stars keeps them from falling down.

(4). Theory of Light

Another great contribution to science of Imam Ja’far as-Sadiq was his Theory of Light. He said that light reflected by different objects comes to us, but only a part of the rays enter our eyes. That is the reason why we do not see distant objects clearly.

If all the rays of light which come from them entered our eyes, objects would appear near to us. If we make a device through which all the rays of light coming from the camels grazing at a distance of 3000 zirah (one zirah is 40 inches) entered our eyes we would see them grazing at a distance of only 60 zirah ie. All these objects would look 50 times nearer to us.

This theory spread far and wide through his students and reached Europe too.

It was this theory, which helped Lippershey of Flanders to make his first binoculars in 1608. Galileo made use of this binoculars and invented his telescope in 1610. If the Imam had not formulated this theory of light, binoculars and telescopes would not have been invented and made and Galileo could not have confirmed through visual observations the theories of Copernicus and Kelper that all planets including the earth rotate round the sun.

When Galileo was asked why his telescope made heavenly bodies look so near that they could see the mountains of the moon, he repeated the words of Imam Ja’far as-Sadiq and said : “This telescope collects all the rays of light coming from the heavenly bodies. When all the rays of light coming from the heavenly bodies are concentrated, the objects which are at a distance of 3,000 feet away appear to us as if they were at a distance of only 60 feet.”

Before the time of the Imam, it was believed that light from our eyes falls upon different objects so that they could be seen. He was the first to have said that “ the rays of the light from different objects come to our eyes and enable us to see them. The rays of light from our eyes do not go out and fall on other objects, otherwise we would be able to see them in the darkness also.”

The Imam also put forward a very interesting theory about the speed of light. He has said that light is a kind of motion which is very fast. This is in harmony to the modern theory of light.

The Imam had once said during the course of his lectures that a powerful beam of light could move heavy objects. The light which Moses saw at Mount Sinai was of that kind. It could have moved the mountain if God had so desired. It can be said that by making this statement, he laid the foundation of the theory of the laser.
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(5). Composition of the Human Body :

The Imam said that while all human beings were made from the earth, which was a known fact, he also said that whatever is in the earth is also in the human body, but all elements are not in the same proportion. Four elements are in very large quantity, eight elements in small quantities and eight elements in minute quantities. This theory was proved to be correct as late as the 18th century with the dissection of the human body.

Results of these analysis show that the ratio of the major elements in human bodies is the same throughout the world as Imam Ja’far as-Sadiq had said. The four elements which are in large quantities in the human body are: Oxygen, Carbon, Hydrogen and Nitrogen. The eight elements which are in small quantities are : Magnesium, Sodium, Potassium, Calcium, Phosphorus, Sulphur, Iron, and Chlorine. The other eight elements which are in very minute quantities are : Molybdenum, Cobalt, Manganese, Copper, Zinc, Fluorine, Silicon and Iodine.

(6). Theory of transfer of Disease by Rays

Imam Ja’far as-Sadiq has said that patients suffering from certain diseases emit special types of rays. If these rays fall upon a healthy person, they are apt to make him sick.

This theory was not acceptable to physicians and biologists. They were of the opinion that microbes and viruses were the main cause of many diseases, which were spread by insects, air, water, food and direct and indirect contact with patients.

No one before the Imam, had ever said that diseases were also transferred from one person to the other by means of rays, emitted from patients suffering from certain diseases. This idea was rather ridiculed by the learned people till it was proved to be correct by scientific studies.

(7). Theory of Matter and Anti-Matter

One of the unique theories of Imam Ja’far as-Sadiq is that everything except Allah has its opposites, but this does not result in a conflict, otherwise the whole universe would be destroyed. This is the theory of matter and anti-matter. The difference between matter and anti-matter is that in matter the electrons are negatively charged and protons are positively charged. But in anti-matter, the electrons are positively charged and protons are negatively charged. Scientists have concluded that if one kilogram of matter collides with one kilogram of anti-matter, so much energy will be released that the whole world will be destroyed.

Professor Alfven is of the opinion that there is no other source in the universe, which can generate so much energy as quasars, except explosion of matter with anti-matter.

Just as uranium was used for exploding an atomic bomb, helium would be used for exploding matter with anti-matter. Russian scientists have already obtained anti-matter of helium.

(8). Theory of the Light of the Stars

Imam Ja’far as-Sadiq has said that among the clusters of stars which we see at night, some are so bright that our sun, in comparison, is quite insignificant.

Because of man’s limited knowledge, many people during the Imam’s time and centuries after him, considered this theory to be illogical, irrational and unacceptable. They could not believe that these small specks of light which are called stars, can have more light than the light of our big bright sun.

About twelve and a half centuries later, it was proved that what he said was quite correct. It has been discovered that there are stars in the universe, which are billions of times brighter than the sun. They are called quasars. The light of quasars is about quadrillion times (ten thousand billion times) the light of our sun. Some of them are at a distance of about 9000 million light years from the earth. The first such quasar was discovered in 1927.

Another important theory was that there are many worlds other than our own, that we cannot even count them. Their number is only in the knowledge of Allah (swt). Just as we have living beings on this planet, there are living beings on many other planets in the universe where conditions are suitable.

Our telescopes are even today not powerful enough to enable us to see what is beyond the quasars. Therefore we do not know how vast the universe is. It can only be surmised that in the universe there would be millions and millions of worlds, which have existed for billions of years and shall continue to do so for billions of years to come.

We must therefore accept as Imam Ja’far as-Sadiq has said, that, no one except Allah (swt) knows the number of large and small worlds (source : Imam Jafar al-Sadiq’s [a] contribution to the sciences)

WaLlahu a’lamu bishshawab

Top 30 Countries, with the Largest Muslim Populations (2014)

muslim

01. India 255.300.000 (20%)
02. Indonesia 218.680.000 (88%)
03. Pakistan 183.640.000 (96,3%)
04. Bangladesh 154.910.000 (90,4%)
05. China 135.740.000 (10%)

06. Nigeria 121.520.000 (70%)
07. Egypt 80.470.000 (95%)
08. Turkey 75.950.000 (99,8%)
09. Iran 75.740.000 (99%)
10. Ethiopia 44.600.000 (50%)

11. Algeria 38.190.000 (99,7%)
12. Iraq 34.050.000 (97%)
13. Afghanistan 34.000.000 (100%)
14. Sudan 33.170.000 (97%)
15. Morocco 32.260.000 (99%)

16. Saudi Arabia 30.100.000 (100%)
17. Russia 27.270.000 (19%)
18. Uzbekistan 26.580.000 (88%)
19. Yemen 25.200.000 (100%)
20. Syria 19.710.000 (90%)

21. Malaysia 18.000.000 (60,4%)
22. Niger 16.060.000 (95%)
23. Kenya 14.590.000 (33%)
24. Mali 13.950.000 (90%)
25. Senegal 12.690.000 (94%)

26. Uganda 12.080.000 (35%)
27. Kazakhstan 11.930.000 (70,2%)
28. Ghana 11.750.000 (45%)
29. Burkina Faso 10.890.000 (60,5%)
30. Tunisia 10.790.000 (99%)

Source :
muslimpopulation.com

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iklanusapresiden1   iklanwilliam1    iklansaudi1    iklancheroke

5 Muslim Inventions, That We Can Still Feel the Benefits Today ?

Coffee

About 1,600,000,000 cups of coffee are consumed every day around the world. Billions of people rely on it as part of their daily routines. And yet, very few people are aware of the Muslim origins of this ubiquitous drink.

According to the historical record, in the 1400s coffee became a very popular drink among Muslims in Yemen, in the southern Arabian Peninsula. Legend goes that a shepherd (some say in Yemen, some say in Ethiopia) noticed that his goats became very energetic and jumpy when they ate beans from a particular tree. He had the courage to try them himself, noticing they gave him an energy boost. Over time, the tradition of roasting the beans and immersing them in water to create a sour yet powerful drink developed, and thus, coffee was born.

Roasted coffee beans

Regardless of whether or not the story of the shepherd ever really happened, coffee found its way from the highlands of Yemen to the rest of the Ottoman Empire, the premier Muslim empire of the 15th century. Coffeehouses specializing in the new drink began to spring up in all the major cities of the Muslim world: Cairo, Istanbul, Damascus, Baghdad. From the Muslim world, the drink found its way into Europe through the great merchant city of Venice. Although it was at first denounced as the “Muslim drink” by Catholic authorities, coffee became a part of European culture. The coffeehouses of the 1600s was where philosophers met and discussed issues such as the rights of man, the role of government, and democracy. These discussions over coffee spawned what became the Enlightenment, one of the most powerful intellectual movements of the modern world.

From a Yemeni/Ethiopian shepherd to shaping European political thought to over 1 billion cups per day, this Muslim innovation is one of the most important inventions of human history.

Algebra

While many secondary school students struggling through math classes may not particularly appreciate the importance of algebra, it is one of the most important contributions of the Muslim Golden Age to the modern world. It was developed by the great scientist and mathematician, Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khawarizmi, who lived from 780 to 850 in Persia and Iraq.

The title page of al-Khawarizmi's book

In his monumental book, Al-Kitāb al-mukhtaṣar fī ḥisāb al-jabr wa-l-muqābala (English: The Compendious Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing), he set forth the basic principles of algebraic equations. The name of the book itself contains the word “al-jabr”, meaning “completion”, from which the Latin word algebra is derived. In the book, al-Khawarizmi explains how to use algebraic equations with unknown variables to solve real-world problems such as zakat calculation and inheritance division. A unique aspect of his reasoning for developing algebra is the desire to make calculations mandated by Islamic law easier to complete in a world without calculators and computers.

Al-Khawarizimi’s books were translated into Latin in Europe in the 1000s and 1100s, where he was known as Algoritmi (the word algorithm is based on his name and his mathematical works). Without his work in developing algebra, modern practical applications of math, such as engineering, would not be possible. His works were used as math textbooks in European universities for hundreds of years after his death.

Degree-Granting Universities

Speaking of universities, that is also an invention made possible by the Muslim world. Early on in Islamic history, mosques doubled as schools. The same people who led prayers would teach groups of students about Islamic sciences such as Quran, fiqh (jurisprudence), and hadith. As the Muslim world grew however, there needed to be formal institutions, known as madrasas, dedicated to the education of students.

The University of Karaouine in Fes

The first formal madrasa was al-Karaouine, founded in 859 by Fatima al-Fihri in Fes, Morocco. Her school attracted some of the leading scholars of North Africa, as well as the land’s brightest students. At al-Karaouine, students were taught by teachers for a number of years in a variety of subjects ranging from secular to religious sciences. At the end of the program, if the teachers deemed their students qualified, they would grant them a certificate known as an ijaza, which recognizes that the student understood the material and is now qualified to teach it.

These first degree-granting educational institutes quickly spread throughout the Muslim world. Al-Azhar University was founded in Cairo in 970, and in the 1000s, the Seljuks established dozens of madrasas throughout the Middle East. The concept of institutes that grant certificates of completion (degrees) spread into Europe through Muslim Spain, where European students would travel to study. The Universities of Bologna in Italy and Oxford in England were founded in the 11th and 12th centuries and continued the Muslim tradition of granting degrees to students who deserved them, and using it as a judge of a person’s qualifications in a particular subject.

An Ottoman mehter band

Military Marching Bands

Many students who attended high schools and universities in the Western world are familiar with the marching band. Made up of a group of a few hundred musicians, a band marches onto a field during an sporting event to entertain the audience and cheer on the players. These school marching bands developed from the use of marching military bands during the Gunpowder Age in Europe that were designed to encourage soldiers during battle. This tradition has its origins in the Ottoman mehter bands of the 1300s that helped make the Ottoman army one of the most powerful in the world.

As part of the elite Janissary corps of the Ottoman Empire, the mehter band’s purpose was to play loud music that would frighten enemies and encourage allies. Using enormous drums and clashing cymbals, the sounds created by a mehter band could stretch for miles. During the Ottoman conquest of the Balkans throughout the 14th -16th centuries, mehter bands accompanied the fearsome Ottoman armies, who seemed almost invincible even in the face of huge European alliances.

Eventually, Christian Europe also caught on to the use of military bands to frighten enemies. Legend has it that after the Ottoman siege of Vienna in 1683, the retreating Ottoman army left behind dozens of musical instruments, which the Austrians collected, studied, and put to their own use. Armies all over Europe soon began implementing marching military bands, revolutionizing the way war was fought in Europe for centuries.

Cameras

It’s hard to imagine a world without photography. Billion dollar companies like Instagram and Canon are based on the idea of capturing light from a scene, creating an image from it, and reproducing that image. But doing so is impossible without the trailblazing work of the 11th century Muslim scientist, Ibn al-Haytham, who developed the field of optics and described how the first cameras work.

The basic principle of a pinhole camera

Working in the imperial city of Cairo in the early 1000s, Ibn al-Haytham was one of the greatest scientists of all time. To regulate scientific advancements, he developed the scientific method, the basic process by which all scientific research is conducted. When he was put under house arrest by the Fatimid ruler al-Hakim, he had the time and ability to study how light works. His research partially focused on how the pinhole camera worked. Ibn al-Haytham was the first scientist to realize that when a tiny hole is put onto the side of a lightproof box, rays of light from the outside are projected through that pinhole into the box and onto the back wall of it. He realized that the smaller the pinhole (aperture), the sharper the image quality, giving him the ability to build cameras that were incredibly accurate and sharp when capturing an image.

Ibn al-Haytham’s discoveries regarding cameras and how to project and capture images led to the modern development of cameras around the same concepts. Without his research into how light travels through apertures and is projected by them, the modern mechanisms inside everyone’s cameras would not exist.

Source :
lostislamichistory.com

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4. From Indonesia To Turkey New Archaeological Discoveries Uncover The Mysteries Of A Lost Civilisation By Graham Hancock

iklanusapresiden1   iklanwilliam1    iklansaudi1    iklancheroke

Media Ukhuwah Penulis Muslim (MUPM), Komunitas berbagi informasi keislaman di Google+

Media Ukhuwah Penulis Muslim (MUPM), adalah satu komunitas dari Google+, yang menjadi tempat untuk saling berbagi informasi antara penulis muslim, yang berkaitan dengan permasalahan keislaman.

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Komunitas ini berdiri pada tanggal 26 Januari 2012, oleh akun @Tera Satu, yang pada saat ini memiliki beberapa sub menu, yaitu :

– aqidah dan fiqh – sunnah – kisah dan hikmah – mukjizat dan misteri – akhlaq dan motivasi
– sejarah islam – berita dakwah – diskusi ukhuwah – video islami – promosi blog – salam perkenalan
– artikel islami – acara

Di dalam perjalanannya, anggota komunitas ini telah berhasil mem-posting ratusan artikel, yang diantaranya berasal dari situs…

– kanzunqalam.com
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Demikianlah sekilas tentang Komunitas Media Ukhuwah Penulis Muslim (MUPM), yang hingga saat artikel ini ditulis telah beranggotakan sekitar 1.772 anggota.